Saturday, December 10, 2011

Ethnic of Banjar

Tribes Banjar (Banjar language: Urang Banjar) or Oloh is still tribes occupying large parts of South Kalimantan Province, and since the 17th century began to occupy some part of Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan, especially the highlands and the lower reaches of the Watershed (DAS) in the region. Tribes sometimes also called Banjar Banjar Malays, but the naming is rarely used.
Ethnic groups from the Banjar Banjar area of ​​the core region of the Sultanate of Barito Banjar include watershed downstream, DAS Materials (State), DAS and the DAS Tabanio Martapura. Barito River downstream of its central interest is the Banjar.
Banjar tribe traces its roots from Sumatra more than 1500 years ago. Djoko Pramono Banjar stated that the tribe came from the Sea People tribes who settled in South Kalimantan. Mythology Meratus Dayak tribes (Dayak Bukit) states that the Banjar and the Tribes Hill Tribes are descended from two brothers namely Si Ayuh (Sandayuhan) that reduce interest Bambang Basiwara Hill and the lower interest Banjar.
Banjar tribe thought to have come originally from the population from Sumatra or the surrounding area, which is building a new homeland in the Land of Banjar (now the province of South Kalimantan) about more than a thousand years ago. Having passed a long time to finally, after mixing with the population-the more original, are sometimes referred to as the Dayak tribe, and by immigrants who came later-formed at least three subsuku, namely (Banjar) Pahuluan, (Banjar) Bars Banyu, and Banjar (Kuala).
Pahuluan Banjar area residents in principle adalalah river valleys (the State branch of the river) that disgorge into the mountains Meratus. Trunk Banjar Banyu State inhabit the river valley, while the Kuala Banjar people inhabit approximately Banjarmasin and Martapura. Language that they develop language called Banjar, which in principle is the Malay language or the surrounding areas of Sumatra, where there is a lot of vocabulary from the Dayak and Javanese......
Banjar name because they were first acquired (before the Banjar sultanate was abolished in 1860) is a resident of the Sultanate Banjarmasin or abbreviated Banjar, according to the name of its capital in the early establishment. When the capital was moved inland (last in Martapura), the name seems to have fixed or unchanging.

Since the 19th century, the tribe Banjar migration to the east coast of Sumatra and Malaysia, but in West Malaysia, ethnic Banjar classified into ethnic Malays, only in Tawau (Sabah, East Malaysia) which is still called Banjar diriya tribe. In Singapore, the tribe Banjar already melted into the ethnic Malays. Census 1930, shows the number of terms Banjar beyond South Kalimantan, but the 2000 census numbers appear to decline.

The Sultanate earlier Banjar covers an area of ​​South Kalimantan province and Central Kalimantan as it is today, then in the 16th century split in the west of the kingdom Kotawaringin Dipati led by Prince Sultan bin Anta Kasuma Mustain Billah and in the 17th century to the east into the kingdom of the Land seasonings, led Prince Sultan bin Dipati Tuha Saidullah which evolved into several areas: Sabamban, Pegatan, Koensan, Poelau Laoet, Batoe Litjin, Cangtoeng, Bangkalaan, Sampanahan, Manoenggoel, and Tjingal. Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan is the primary shoreline land, next to the culture maadam, Banjar migrate to the outer islands such as the Sulu Archipelago and even become one of the elements forming Suluk tribe.

Banjar Pahuluan
Very likely a pre-existing Muslim around the palace which was built in Banjarmasin, but pengislaman mass is thought to occur after the king of the Indian prince who later inducted into the Sultan Suriansyah, followed by citizens of their relatives to Islam, namely kings bubuhan. King elite behavior is followed by the capital, each resident would find a more original, namely Bukit Dayak tribes who once inhabited the valleys of expected the same river. By considering the development of language, tribe Dayak Bukit is a forerunner to the origin of the tribe of Banjar, which are both derived from Sumatra or the surrounding areas, but they first settled. Both groups of Malay society is indeed live next door, but at least in the beginning, in principle do not blend. Thus, although the Tribe Banjar (Pahuluan) establishing settlements in a place, which may not be too far away from the Dayak tribe Hill hall, but each is a stand-alone group.
For security purposes, or because there are ties of kinship, tribal Banjar embryo form a separate residential complex. The complex settlement precursor tribal Banjar (Pahuluan) the first of these is bubuhan residential complex, which at first consisted of an authoritative figure at the head, and resident relatives, and may be coupled with other families to join him. Models of the same or nearly the same also present in the community hall among the Dayak Bukit, which in principle is still valid today. Valley area rivers that disgorge in the Mountains Meratus seems Banjar society's first residential areas, and the concentration of population in this area that much since ancient times, and this is called Pahuluan area. What is presented above illustrates the formation of society (Banjar) Pahuluan, which of course the possibility of Dayak Bukit elements come to shape it.

Trunk Banjar Banyu
Community (Banjar) Bars Banyu formed allegedly closely associated with the formation of centers of power that covers the whole of Banjar, which probably formed the first beginning at the headwaters of the State or its branches Tabalong river. As a citizen who resided in the capital of a pride, thereby becoming a separate population group. Tabalong riverside area is a traditional residence from the Dayak tribe Maanyan (and Lawangan), so that many who allegedly participated subsuku forming rods Banyu, in addition of course the origin Pahuluan people who moved there and the migrants who come from outside. When in Pahuluan most people live from farming (subsistence), then many of the residents Trunk Banyu search eyed as traders and craftsmen.

Banjar Kuala
When the center of the kingdom moved to Banjarmasin (Banjarmasin Sultanate formation), some residents Trunk Banyu (taken) moved to the center of this new power and together with people around the palace of preexisting, established subsuku Banjar. In this area they encounter Ngaju Dayak tribe, which, like with the community and the Dayak Dayak Bukit Maanyan or Lawangan, many of them were eventually merged into the Banjar society, after they embraced Islam. Those who live around the capital of the empire is actually called or calling itself the Banjar, while the community and society stems Banyu Pahuluan used to call him as a person (origin of) the ancient cities of the leading first. But when outside the Land Banjar, they invariably claim to be the Banjar.

Contrary to the opinion of David Alfani, which states that the core rate is the Banjar Malay migrants from Sumatra and surrounding areas, [14] the opinion Idwar Saleh was more emphasized that the indigenous Dayak tribes is tribal core which is then mixed to form Banjar political unity comes as the Indonesian Nation with his Indonesian.
Thus we get the fourth kingdom is the continuation of the kingdom of Daha in Banjar kingdom of Islam and tribal berpadunya Ngaju, Maanyan and Hill as the core. This Banjarmasih when in 1526 the population was established. In the amalgamation (mixture) has recently been mixed with elements of Malay, Javanese, Ngaju, Maanyan, Hill and other small tribes bound by religion, language and customs Banjar Banjar by the diffusion of cultures that exist in the palace. Here we get not a tribe of Banjar, because of ethnic unity that does not exist, that there is a group or large group of Banjar Kuala group, trunk group Banyu and Banjar Banjar Pahuluan.
The former lived in the area until the local Banjar Kuala Martapura. The second live along the river from its mouth at the river Tabalong Barito up to Kelua. The third lived in the foothills of the Cape until Pelaihari Meratus. The group came from Kuala Banjar-ethnic unity Ngaju, Banyu group from Banjar Trunk-ethnic unity Maanyan, Banjar group Pahuluan ethnic unity comes from the Mount. This is the third point. They consider the more civilized and who is not a criterion to Banjar, namely Kaharingan group, with the ridicule of Hamlet, the Biaju, Hill and others. [15]
When the Prince of the Ocean to establish the kingdom of Banjar, he was assisted by the Ngaju, assisted-patihnya duke as duke of Balandean, Patih Billiton, Patih Kuwin Bakumpai etc. as well as those who were defeated. Similarly, Daha residents who defeated most of the people of Bukit and Manyan. The group was given a new religion of Islam, then take an oath of allegiance to the king, and faithful as a sign language using a new mother and left the old mother tongue. So it's not Banjar ethnic unity but of political unity, as the people of Indonesia.

In the socio-historical Banjar society is heterogeneous social groups are configured from a variety of ethnic and race for hundreds of years has forged a life together, so that later formed the ethnic identity (ethnic) Banjar. That is, heterogeneous social group was formed through a process that is not entirely natural (priomordial), but also influenced by other factors is quite complex.

Islam has become characteristic of Banjar society since centuries ago. Islam also has become their identity, which distinguishes it from Dayak groups that exist in the vicinity, which generally still adhere to religious tribe. A pride to Islam, at least once, so it converts among the Dayak community is said to be "babarasih" (cleaned up) in addition to the Banjar.

Banjar society is not a present like that, but it is a historical social construction of a group of people who want a community separate from existing communities on the island of Borneo. Ethnic Banjar is a form of meeting the various ethnic groups who have diverse origins resulting from a social process in this area with a point of departure in the Islamization process undertaken by Demak as a condition of the founding of the Sultanate of Banjar. Before the founding of the Islamic Sultanate of Banjar Banjar can not yet be regarded as an ethnic or religious identity ksesatuan, but rather an identity that refers to a specific territorial area as the place to live.

Then it can be concluded that the Tribe Banjar sub-divided into three ethnically based territorial and tribal-forming elements based on cultural and genetic perspective that describes the entry of new settlers into the territory of indigenous Dayak:

1. Pahuluan Banjar is a mixture of Malay and Hill (Bukit as characteristic of the group)
2. Trunk Banyu Banjar is a mixture of Malay, Maanyan, Lawangan, Hill and Java (Maanyan as characteristic of the group)
3. Kuala Banjar is a mixture of Malay, Ngaju, Barangas, Bakumpai, Maanyan, Lawangan, Hill and Java (Ngaju as characteristic of the group)
By taking the opinion of the core interest Idwar Saleh Banjar, then mixing with the Dayak tribe Banjar Ngaju / tribe cognate (Barito Group West) is located on the west Banjarmasin (Central Kalimantan) we can assume as a group of Banjar Kuala too. To the north of South Kalimantan, mixing occurs at an interest rate Banjar Maanyan / tribe cognate (Group East Barito) as Hamlet, and tribal Lawangan Sand in East Kalimantan are also speaking Lawangan, can we assume as Banyu Trunk group Banjar. Mixing of Banjar in southeastern Borneo tribes there is lots of hill tribes we assume as Banjar Pahuluan.

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